Human Rights Watch conducted research in Khammam and Warangal districts of Andhra Pradesh, and Bijapur, Dantewada, and Bastar districts of Chhattisgarh between November 2007 and February 2008. A report based on this was released by HRW in July 2008.

This report can be accessed and downloaded from the HRW website. We have also uploaded the report on this website and it can downloaded from the ‘Fact Finding reports on Salwa Judum’


Campaign for Peace & Justice in Chhattisgarh

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An team of research scholars and students from various Universities across the country and independent researchers visited Dantewada and Bijapur districts of Chhattisgarh from 6th to the 10th of June 2008. The initiative was taken by the Campaign for Peace and Justice in Chhattisgarh a campaign group formed by individuals and organisations who are deeply concerned about the gross violation of human rights going on in Chhattisgarh.

During the four days, we visited a number of villages and a few camps and documented the testimonies of victims who recounted horrid stories of violence they have witnessed and experienced since the start of the Salwa Judum in 2005. As a team, our observations of the area are frightening as cases of killings, sexual crimes, destructions of villages and food stocks and gross human rights violations on a large scale are rampant. We believe that contrary to the Chhattisgarh Government’s assertion of Salwa Judum being a peaceful, spontaneous and autonomous movement, it is in fact a part of well concerted, militarised strategy on the part of the officialdom.

The Adivasis have narrated gruesome incidents of violence against them. Raids by the Judum members resulting in the loss of lives and property in the villages are a regular phenomenon. Loot, arson and torture as a means to coerce people to go to the Salwa Judum camps. In some cases, arson has been used as means not only to coerce people to go to Salwa Judum camps but also to prevent them from returning to their villages. We documented numerous instances of girls and women being raped and subject to other forms of sexual violence by Salwa Judum and security forces.

The atrocities don’t however end at the borders of the camps and in fact several cases of torture and murder have been reported from these camps. Basics such as food, water and sanitation have been denied to those in the camps. Those who stayed back in villages or ran away from Salwa Judum camps live in constant fear of yet another raid by the Judum. Their mobility and access to basics such education, health and weekly markets are severely restricted .

Acts of intimidation and violence by the forces in the pretext of protecting villagers and justifying it by branding them to be Naxalites seems to be a thought out strategy. The level of militarisation and criminalisation in Dantewada and Bijapur is frightening. Constant surveillance has insecurity and has created a tense, war like atmosphere. Our grave concern is that arming civilians as a counter insurgent strategy will eventually create a criminilised society where jungle raj will be the rule of the day.

You may be aware that the NHRC, pursuant to the Supreme Court order on 31st March 2008 has constituted a fact finding team which after a preliminary visit in May, had organised a public hearing on 10th June 2008 in Dantewada. Several people from various villages from across Dantewada and Bijapur attended this hearing and deposed before the commission. Our observations are presented to the National Human Rights Commission that arrived in Dantewada on the 10th of June 2008.

Our fear that the people who have been courageous enough to voice their discontent and give testimonies to NHRC being harassed and threatened by the militarized network. A group of IDPs who had fled Chhattisgarh to Andhra Pradesh due to the violence unleashed by Salwa Judum and had come to depose before the NHRC were detained and harassed at the Konta Police station on there way back to AP. We fear that people from villages within Chhattisgarh may also be harassed and tortured by the Salwa Judum.

[These are preliminary observations by the team presented at a press conference in Raipur on 11th June. We are in the process of preparing a detailed report which will be circulated shortly. ]

Team members: Kamal Nayan Choubey – Ph.d Scholar, Univ. of Delhi

Ranjay Kumar – Univ. of Delhi

Vikas Kumar – Univ. of Delhi

Preeti Chauhan– Univ. of Delhi

Sanchita Bakshi – Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai

Aditya Swarup – NALSAR Univ of Law, Hyderabad.

Contact details: Praveen Mote-09313879073; Sridevi Panikkar-09868099304

New Delhi, Mar 18 (PTI) In view of the growing menace of Left wing extremism, mainly in Chhattisgarh, Administrative Reforms Commission has said the situation “continues to cause serious concern” and favoured a relook in the policy of ‘Salwa Judum’ (self-defence groups) in the state. While Chhattisgarh tops the list of 11 States with maximum incidents and deaths due to naxal activities since 2003, the Commission chaired by Veerappa Moily, in its latest report, said even though there is a need to enhance the capacity of security forces to tackle naxalism, the government needs to formulate policies for infrastructure and social development in such disturbed areas.

Referring to ‘Salwa Judum’, the Commission in its seventh report titled “Capacity Building for Conflict Resolution” said, “the situation in the region has not been helped by raising of local resistance groups called Salwa Judum.” It adds, “even though Salwa Judum is publicised as a spontaneous awakening of the masses against extremist, today thousands of tribals are protected in fortified camps pointing to disturbed life they are forced to lead.

” The report mentioned that these camps have been attacked by extremists leading to several deaths and said, “in the process, the poor tribals have been caught between the legitimate sovereign power of the State and the illegitimate coercive power of the extremist who deliver instant justice through peoples’ courts and other informal devices.” ‘Salwa Judum’, an initiative supported by the State government had come in for criticism previously from various political as well as Human Rights Groups.


As an international group of human rights lawyers from various countries, the International Association of People’s Lawyers (IAPL) supports the rights and struggles of peoples all over. The IAPL has been invited by its Indian chapter to visit, observe and report on the situation in Chhattisgarh. An international fact finding team visited Raipur, Jagdalpur, Dantewada, and surrounding rural areas on October 22-26, 2007.

A report of Preliminary observations and findings of the IAPL team on the human rights situation in Chhattisgarh, India particularly of the Adivasis in the Bastar region can be accessed here.


The Salwa Judum campaign inten ds to concentrate tribal people in Dantewada in so called “relief camps” with the acquiescence and even blessings of the Chhattisgarh state. Only a few villagers reportedly moved voluntarily to the camps. Those that refused to leave their villages have apparently been forced by Special Police Officers (SPO), militias from the Salwa Judum campaign that did not hesitate to use coercion, threats, intimidation, deception and violence for this purpose. Serious atrocities have been reportedly committed by these forces.

Life conditions in the “relief camps” are close to inhuman… The majority of those we were able to speak expressed to us their earnest wish to go back to their villages, residences, farms and livelihood. Camp inhabitants who attempt to leave the hamlets are intercepted, returned to the camp and even punished. Camp life is a virtual detention…

Although they are now temporarily being fed by the camp authorities, they have no certainty about how long ration cards will be provided. Their houses and farms are abandoned. They don’t know when to return to their villages and what they will find upon their return.